Contribution of Geoinformatics for the characterization of the physical and geographical environment of the Rio Grande river basin
Wednesday 8th January 2020
The use of remote sensing and GIS has had an increasing evolution in recent years, mainly with the objective of determining the characteristics of land use and land cover (LULC), or the monitoring of geo-environmental processes. Therefore, the general objective of this study was to analyze the spatial and temporal evolution of LULC of the territory located in the basin of the Rio Grande, in the United States and Mexico. Specific objectives were defined as follows: i) to determine the Coverages and use of Soil of Rio Bravo (1990-2015) based on supervised classification; ii) to evaluate spatial distribution of negative NDVI trends in areas with vegetation using the non-parametric measure of the Mann Kendall test; iii) to define urban growth projections of Ciudad Juárez for the years 2030, 2050 from Markov chains; iv) and finally, the identification of pecan orchards for the years 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015 through a classification process. In relation to the LULC determination of the Rio Grande (1990-2015) based on supervised classification, the results show the spatial distribution of the area occupied by each category in which the category that occupies the largest area is the scrubland, followed by descending order by grassland, forest, bare soil, urban, agriculture, wetlands and bodies of water. The spatial distribution of negative NDVI trends in areas with vegetation using the non-parametric measure of the Mann Kendall test, showed that the time series of the average NDVI values presents a clear difference between the different areas with vegetation. For example, the forested areas show the highest average values of the NDVI, followed by the categories of grassland, scrubland and, finally, the category of bare soil with the lowest average values. Furthermore, the preliminary visual inspection revealed notable differences in the NDVI trends related to the different categories of land cover and use. Finally, large areas of natural vegetation were found showing statistically significant negative trends in NDVI values, which is more evident in the upper areas of the basin, mainly in the forest areas at the head waters on the watershed. Regarding the urban growth projections of Ciudad Juárez, the result of the model shows a relatively small urban area growth (urban expansion); however, a potential increase in the densification of the urban area related to an increase in the impermeable area due to the occupation of vacant areas within the urban area, is present. Finally, regarding the identification of pecan orchards throughout the study area and by 2015, 8500 hectares were found, of which 770 hectares belong to Mexico, and 7730 hectares to the USA side.
URL: Click Here to View